Archivo de la etiqueta: landraces

Lantos, I., M. Giovannetti y N. Ratto. 2014. Alcances y limitaciones para la identificación arqueológica de gránulos de almidón de razas nativas de Zea mays (Poaceae) del noroeste argentino. Darwiniana, nueva serie 2(1): 74-95.


Se caracterizaron y analizaron microscópicamente los gránulos de almidón de ocho razas nativas de Zea mays del noroeste de Argentina (pisingallo, cristalino colorado, perlita, calchaquí, complejo tropical, dentado amarillo-colorado, chullpi y capia). Se generó una base de datos de referencia con caracteres morfológicos y métricos de los gránulos de almidón de las razas locales para dar cuenta de la diversidad a nivel intra e inter-racial. El objetivo de este trabajo es reconocer elementos referenciales para lograr mejores y más confiables identificaciones de los gránulos de almidón de maíz en muestras arqueológicas. Para este fin se utilizaron herramientas estadísticas descriptivas y se realizaron análisis multivariados; se aplicó un tratamiento estadístico de los datos para estimar la clasificación de los grá­nulos de almidón por razas. Los resultados mostraron una alta variabilidad para cada raza y una gran superposición entre las razas. Ninguna de las razas de maíz presentó características distintivas que per­mitan una discriminación en grupos.


In this paper we characterized and analyzed microscopically starch grains of eight Zea mays modern landraces from Northwestern Argentina (pisingallo, cristalino colorado, perlita, calchaquí, complejo tro­pical, dentado amarillo-colorado, chullpi, and capia). We created a reference database of local varieties to explore the diversity in the morphological and metric characters of starch grains at intra and inter-ra­cial levels. The aim of this paper was to search for referential elements that could allow better and more reliable identifications of maize starches in archaeological samples. We used descriptive statistics and multivariate analyses; we applied a statistical treatment to estimate the probability of correct classifi­cation of starch grains. Results showed high variability within each landrace and a large superposition between varieties. None of the landraces showed distinctive characteristics that allowed an exclusive discrimination.

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Lía, V. A. Confalonieri, N.Ratto, J.A. Cámara Hernández, A.M. Miante Alzogaray, L. Poggio & T.A. Brown. 2007. Microsatellite typing of ancient maize: insights into the history of agriculture in southern South America. Proceeding of the Royal Academy of London 274(1609): 545-554.


Abstract: Archaeological maize specimens from Andean sites of southern South America, dating from 400 to 1400 years before present, were tested for the presence of ancient DNA and three microsatellite loci were typed in the specimens that gave positive results. Genotypes were also obtained for 146 individuals corresponding to modern landraces currently cultivated in the same areas and for 21 plants from Argentinian lowland races. Sequence analysis of cloned ancient DNA products revealed a high incidence of substitutions appearing in only one clone, with transitions prevalent. In the archaeological specimens, there was no evidence of polymorphism at any one of the three microsatellite loci: each exhibited a single allelic variant, identical to the most frequent allele found in contemporary populations belonging to races Amarillo Chico, Amarillo Grande, Blanco and Altiplano. Affiliation between ancient specimens and a set of races from the Andean complex was further supported by assignment tests. The striking genetic uniformity displayed by the ancient specimens and their close relationship with the Andean complex suggest that the latter gene pool has predominated in the western regions of southern South America for at least the past 1400 years. The results support hypotheses suggesting that maize cultivation initially spread into South America via a highland route, rather than through the lowlands.

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